Dutch philosopher (1632–1677)
Baruch (de) Spinoza was a Dutch philosopher of Portuguese Sephardic Jewish origin. One of the foremost exponents of 17th-century Rationalism and one of the early and seminal thinkers of the Enlightenment and modern biblical criticism including modern conceptions of the self and the universe, he came to be considered "one of the most important philosophers—and certainly the most radical—of the early modern period." Inspired by the groundbreaking ideas of René Descartes, Spinoza became a leading philosophical figure of the Dutch Golden Age. Spinoza's given name, which means "Blessed", varies among different languages. In Hebrew, his full name is written ברוך שפינוזה. "In most of the documents and records contemporary with Spinoza's years within the Jewish community, his name is given as 'Bento'", Portuguese for "Blessed". In his works in Latin, he used the name Benedictus de Spinoza.
Baruch Spinoza Quotes
He alone is free who lives with free consent under the entire guidance of reason.
Only that thing is free which exists by the necessities of its own nature, and is determined in its actions by itself alone.
I would warn you that I do not attribute to nature either beauty or deformity, order or confusion. Only in relation to our imagination can things be called beautiful or ugly, well-ordered or confused.
There is no hope unmingled with fear, and no fear unmingled with hope.
Fear cannot be without hope nor hope without fear.
All happiness or unhappiness solely depends upon the quality of the object to which we are attached by love.
Happiness is a virtue, not its reward.
Those who are believed to be most abject and humble are usually most ambitious and envious.
The highest activity a human being can attain is learning for understanding, because to understand is to be free.
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